Consultation and participation Based on the typology of involvement described in Boivin et al. (2010), we use the term ‘consultation’ to refer to the process of collecting information from patient and public stakeholders to inform guideline development and implementation. Whereas ‘participation’ refers to patient and public stakeholders exchanging information with other stakeholders, for example, as members of a guideline development group. However, this distinction is not absolute; we include a few examples of patient engagement that combine or straddle consultation and participation. Patients and the public Patients and the public can refer to people with personal experience of a disease, condition or service (patients, consumers, users), their carers or family members, and people representing a collective group of patients or carers (representatives or advocates). It may also refer to members of society interested in health and social care services, or whose life is affected directly or indirectly by a guideline (citizens, taxpayers, the public).